Zaštita od ljetnih vrućina / Protection from summer heat

Kada su u proljetnim i ljetnim mjesecima temperature visoke, a još je puno vlage u zraku, može doći do određenih poremećaja kao što su sunčanica, toplinska iscrpljenost, toplinski udar te dehidracija koje imaju štetne posljedice po zdravlje. Posebno ugrožene skupine su djeca, osobe starije životne dobi, kronični bolesnici, osobe s povišenim krvnim tlakom te osobe koje rade na otvorenim prostorima.

Preporučene mjere zaštite zdravlja kod visokih temperatura zraka

  • Povećajte unos tekućine, bez obzira na stupanj aktivnosti. Ne čekajte osjećaj žeđi. Ne uzimajte tekućinu koja sadrži kofein, alkohol ili veće količine šećera jer će to samo povećati gubitak tekućine iz organizma.
  • Pijte rashlađene, ali ne i jako hladne napitke.
  • Rashladite tijelo tuširanjem ili mokrim ručnicima, kupkama i sl.
  • U prehrani izbjegavajte masna, pržena, začinjena i teška jela. Prednost treba dati kuhanom povrću, voću, salatama i ribi. Izuzetno je bitna nadoknada tekućine i laganim varivima, juhama i čajevima.
  • Ako možete, boravite u klimatiziranim prostorijama. Ukoliko nemate rashladni uređaj kod kuće ili na poslu, nastojte prošetati do klimatiziranih prostora u gradu. Danju zatvorite prozore i probajte zamračiti prostor u kojem boravite.
  • Izbjegavajte izlazak u najtoplijem dijelu dana od 10 do 17 sati.
  • Nosite laganu, ugodnu, svijetlu, širu odjeću od prirodnih vlakana, a za izlazak na sunce najbolje je nositi i veći šešir.
  • Nikako ne ostavljajte djecu u zaključanim, parkiranim automobilima. Temperature se u automobilima ljeti mogu popeti i do 60 ºC.
  • Novorođenčad i malu djecu (do 4 godine) ne izlažite suncu i osigurajte im dovoljan unos tekućine.
  • Usporite ritam života i izbjegavajte kretanje u doba dana kad su temperature najviše.

Dodatne mjere zaštite za osobe starije životne dobi

  • Starije se osobe nikako smiju izlagati sunčevoj energiji u razdoblju od 10 do 17 sati, poglavito ne srčani bolesnici i bolesnici oboljeli od šećerne bolesti.
  • Prigodom izlaska zaštititi glavu šeširom, maramom ili kapom.
  • Nužna je učestalija kontrola krvnog tlaka.
  • Pojava glavobolje, mučnine, vrtoglavice i dehidracije za stariju osobu znak su uzbune pa se ona  mora hitno javiti svom izabranom doktoru obiteljske medicine ili najbližoj hitnoj pomoći.
  • Starija osoba obavezno mora uvijek uz sebe posjedovati svoje osnovne podatke: ime i prezime, godinu rođenja, adresu stanovanja i broj telefona osobe kojoj se može javiti za svaki problem vezan za tu stariju osobu.
  • Važno je održavati redovitu čistoću tijela i okoliša te se strogo pridržavati uputa liječenja i kontroliranog uzimanja lijekova.
  • Nužne su trajne tjelesne i psihičke aktivnosti isključivo u jutarnjim i večernjim satima, najbolje u prirodi. Ako je kretanje otežano, nužno je redovito višesatno provjetravanje prostorija u kojoj  boravi  starija funkcionalno onesposobljena osoba.

Preuzeto iz: Sigurni i zdravi

Protection from summer heat

When temperatures are high in spring and summer months, and there is still a lot of humidity in the air, certain disorders can occur, such as sunstroke, heat exhaustion, heat stroke and dehydration, which have adverse health effects. Especially susceptible groups are children, elderly people, chronic patients, persons with high blood pressure and persons working in the exterior.

Recommended health protection measures during high air temperatures

  • Increase the intake of fluids, regardless of the level of your activity. Do not wait until you become thirsty. Do not consume fluids that contain caffeine, alcohol or large amount of sugar, because they will only increase the loss of fluids in your body.
  • Drink cool, but not very cold beverages.
  • Cool your body by showering or with wet towels, baths and similar activities.
  • Take baths or showers or use cool, wet towels.
  • Avoid eating greasy, fried, spicy or heavy meals. The advantage should be given to boiled vegetables, fruits, salads and fish. It is also very important to compensate fluids by light stews, soups and tea.
  • If possible, stay in air-conditioned spaces. If you do not have an air-conditioning unit at home or at work, try to go to air-conditioned places in the town. Close your windows during the day and try to obscure the areas where you are staying.
  • Avoid leaving the house at the warmest times of the day, from 10 pm to 5 pm.
  • Wear light, comfortable, light-coloured, wide clothes made from natural fibres, and when you go out in the sun it is best to wear a bigger hat.
  • Slow down your usual pace of life and avoid physical activity when the temperatures are at their highest. Never leave your children in locked, parked automobiles. Temperatures in cars can go up to 60 oC in summer. Do not expose new-borns and small children (up to 4 years of age) to the sun and make sure they drink enough fluids.  

Additional protection measures for elderly persons

  • Elderly persons must not be exposed to the sun between 10 am and 5 pm, especially if they are heart patients or diabetics.
  • When you go out, protect your head with a hat, scarf or cap.
  • It is necessary to check your blood pressure frequently.
  • The signs of headache, sickness, dizziness and dehydration for elderly people are cause for alarm, and they should immediately contact their designated general practice physician or the nearest emergency medical service.
  • Elderly people must always carry their general information with them: name and surname, year of birth, address and a telephone number from a person who can be contacted with regard to any problem occurring to the elderly person.
  • It is important to maintain regular body hygiene and clean environment and to seriously adhere to doctor’s instructions and controlled medication intake.
  • Long-term physical exercise is necessary, especially in the morning and in the evening, and preferably in natural surroundings. If physical activity is impaired, it is necessary to air for several hours the areas of stay of the functionally impaired elderly persons.

This article is part of our publication Safe and sound in Zadar County

Natrag